Friday, April 29, 2016

ISO Image and UDF Disk Image

ISO Image is the term that has been used to describe one of the standardized forms of the archive file of an optical disc, and it bears the extension .iso. As a disk image, an ISO Image contains an exact representation of the files of a disc, generally from a CD or possibly a DVD. An ISO Image is a file system, and in many cases can actually function as the disc itself.

The term ISO Image is not the official standard term referring to the file, but the name that has become attached to the standard form that was first specified in ISO 9660:1988 - Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange. This document is intended to standardize a form of disk image for interoperability between operating systems.


ISO Image is the standard for CDs and is also used by some for DVDs, but it is not widely recognized as the standard disc image for newer media. Most DVDs and Blu-rays make use of the Universal Disk Format (UDF) as a collective, official standard for optical disc file systems. UDF was first specified in ISO/IEC 13346. This standard document consists of five parts, which include:

The Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) oversees the development and standardization of the UDF specification, and it has been responsible for the many upgrades of UDF since it was first introduced.

Revision 1.02 of the Universal Disk Format was created in 1996, and the DVD Forum quickly adopted it as the standard for DVDs. Although UDF 1.02 has been preceded by many other revisions, it still remains as the DVD standard.

UDF 2.5 is generally used for Blu-ray discs, while some can make use of UDF 2.6.

Arbor Day

Arbor Day

Arbor Day is celebrated nationwide on the last Friday of April, with some variations in certain parts of the country. Arbor Day is intended to advocate tree planting and commemorate the importance of botany in nature and our lives.

When Arbor Day first became a legal holiday in Nebraska, it occurred on April 22, the same day as today’s observance of Earth Day. However, Arbor Day precedes the birth of Earth Day by almost one century, having its roots in the actions of a Nineteenth Century pioneer.

When J. Sterling Morton arrived in the Nebraska Territory from Detroit in 1854, he took it upon itself to express his love of nature as the editor of Nebraska’s largest newspaper, specifically stressing the need for more trees in his new home. His message quickly spread to his audience, and the other pioneers agreed that trees would be useful not only for aesthetic purposes but also for soil sustainability and shade. Morton later became the Secretary of Nebraska, letting the prominence of his message grow even greater.

In 1872, Morton proposed the first Arbor Day for planting trees, which occurred on April 10, 1872. Incentives for taking part included prizes for those who could properly plant the greatest number of trees. As a result, it is estimated that more than one million trees were planted in Nebraska on the first Arbor Day.

Once Nebraska reached statehood, its governor officially recognized the holiday, and in 1885, it became a legal state holiday on the day of Morton’s birthday, April 22. On April 22, 1885, Morton spoke during a grand parade as each school child was given the goal of planting a single tree. In the years that followed, more and more schools nationwide took part by planting trees.

Planting Trees for Arbor Day

Ever since then, the observance has continued. In 1907, Theodore Roosevelt gave his Arbor Day Proclamation to the School Children of the United States. In 1970, Richard Nixon declared the last Friday in April to be Arbor Day.

It is interesting that the admiration for trees predates much of the appreciation for other aspects of the environment. Morton, aside from respecting trees for their beauty, had a clear understanding of ecology and the need for trees to maintain soil. However, he, along with many other early participants in Arbor Day, probably did not fully understand the importance of trees in the Earth and the process by which they produce clean air for us to breathe. Planting trees is now more important than ever due to the current climate situation.

ISO 14064 gives specifications on greenhouse gas quantification, monitoring, and removal. It consists of three parts:

In the time we now live in, with a great deal of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, one of the greatest players in the carbon cycle can help us. A tree acts as a natural carbon sink, absorbing carbon dioxide from the air to convert it into the sugar, cellulose, and carbohydrates that it needs to grow. This is why, among the many plans for greenhouse gas removal in Annex A of ISO 14064-2, reforestation is continuously mentioned.

Reforestation Carbon Sequestration

Planting a single tree may not put an end to climate change, but it can still remove some of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Because of this, Morton’s message is still incredibly important.

Please remember that this is just the story of Arbor Day in the United States. Most other countries recognize the importance of trees and set aside one day to celebrate the holiday. In fact, the first Arbor Day in the world began in the Spanish village of MondoƱedo in 1594.

Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF)

Additive Manufacturing File Format AMF

The standard file format for additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing has been updated. The file used in AM is quite possibly the most important aspect of the process, since it determines the entire layout of the fabricated product. The current standard, as addressed in ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 - Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) Version 1.2 is an enhancement of the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF).

The standard AMF file addressed in ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 is intended to replace the use of the STL file, which, for the past three decades, has lasted as the industry standard for transferring information between design programs and additive manufacturing. However, the newer AMF file, which was introduced as the official standard in 2011, better meets the current needs of additive manufacturing and 3D printing technology.

The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for early stereolithography technology, and although it has since been widely adopted for 3D printing, it was never actually recognized as an official standard by any standardization body. An STL file defines only surface mesh, giving no provisions for representing color, texture, material, substructure and other properties of the object that the file is created to manufacture.

3D printing standard file AMF

However, additive manufacturing has uses in consumer products, architecture, medical technology, and the aerospace industry, among many other groups. Between all of these, a plethora of objects and equipment has been additive manufactured in highly customizable ways. The AMF format is XML-based, which makes it highly compressible and easy to read, write, and process. Essentially the PDF for additive manufacturing, AMF is a format that allows for the inclusion of many aspects that STL files cannot address, including colors, units, and materials.

In addition, since AM has uses is a variety of industries, it is necessary that the standard file format used is highly interoperable. With the XML-based format, designers can include as much information as possible in the standard AMF file.

ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 acknowledges that the needs of the additive manufacturing industry will change as the technology continues to grow. Because of this, the specifications covered in the document are intended to make the AMF format forwards compatible to allow for the incorporation of new features. It is even backwards compatible with STL files, and conversion between the two can be accomplished without loss of information.

A W3C XML schema definition (XSD) for the AMF that is covered in this document is available from ISO ( and from ASTM (

If you would like to learn more about other additive manufacturing standards, please refer to this post: Additive Manufacturing Standards

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

ASTM Playground Standards

Playground surfaces and equipment are the subject of a number of ASTM standards which are listed here and summarized briefly for reference.

ASTM standards for playgrounds and playground equipment specify performance criteria, test methods and safety considerations. Equipment and fencing along with the playground surfaces contribute to the safety and accessibility of playgrounds. Public playgrounds and home playgrounds represent different issues, so some ASTM standards address them separately. Another distinction is made based on the different age limits that reflect the physical and mental abilities of the children. These standards in general are intended to reduce the likelihood of life-threatening or debilitating injuries.

ASTM Standards for Public Playgrounds

ASTM F2373-11 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Public Use Play Equipment for Children 6 Months through 23 Months

Public Use Play Equipment for Children 6 Months through 23 Months

This consumer safety performance specification provides safety and performance requirements for various types of public use play equipment such as, but not limited to, composite play structures, climbing structures, to-fro swings, spring rocking equipment, and slides. It is intended to apply to play equipment that is used in places of public assembly, including early care and education facilities, parks, or playgrounds. Public use play areas for children in this age range include both indoor (classroom) settings and outdoor playgrounds. Where appropriate, distinctions will be made between indoor and outdoor settings where there is supervision (for example, a play area that is part of an early care and education facility), and settings with unlimited access (for example, public playgrounds and parks).

The range of users encompassed by this consumer safety performance specification is the 5th percentile 6 month old through the 95th percentile 23 month old.

The purpose of this specification is to reduce the potential for life threatening and debilitating injuries.

Accessory toys attached to play equipment must meet all relevant standards including this consumer safety performance specification.

Home playground equipment, amusement park equipment, sports equipment, fitness equipment, soft contained play equipment, tricycles, toys, juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, play yards, expansion gates, and expandable enclosures, furniture (including child-sized house play furnishings and sand/water tables intended primarily for indoor use), bassinets and cradles, infant walkers, bouncer seats, jumpers, infant stationary activity centers, and infant carriers are not included in the scope of this specification.

ASTM F1487-11 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use

Public Use Play Equipment for Children 2 Years through 12 Years

This consumer safety performance specification provides safety and performance standards for various types of public playground equipment. Its purpose is to reduce life-threatening and debilitating injuries.

The range of users encompassed by this consumer safety performance specification is the 5th percentile 2-year-old through the 95th percentile 12-year-old.

Home playground equipment, toys, amusement rides, sports equipment, fitness equipment
intended for users over the age of 12, public use play equipment for children 6 to 24 months, and soft contained play equipment are not included in this specification.

Products or materials (site furnishings) that are installed outside the equipment use zone, such as benches, tables, independent shade structures, and borders used to contain protective surfacing, are not considered playground equipment and are not included in this specification.

This specification does not address accessibility, except as it pertains to safety issues not covered in the DOJ 2010 Standard for Accessible Design.

ASTM Standards for Home Playgrounds

ASTM F1148-12 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Home Playground Equipment

Home Playground Equipment

This consumer safety specification provides safety requirements for various types of home playground equipment intended for use by children aged from over eighteen months through 10 years. It further provides such requirements for swings intended specifically for toddlers. Different age limits for various requirements are found in this specification. These limits reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental or physical ability, or both, of the child to cope with the hazards.

Home playground equipment is defined as any product in which the support structure remains stationary while the activity is taking place and is intended for a child to perform any of the following activities: climbing, swinging, sliding, rocking, spinning, crawling, or creeping, or combination thereof. Methods of identifying products that comply with this consumer safety specification are given.

Fitness equipment is specifically excluded unless attached to the play equipment. This specification is not intended to apply to juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, playpens/enclosures, beds, or furniture (including outdoor furniture, such as picnic tables, cradle rockers, activity centers being used as walker substitutes, bouncers, jumpers, infant carriers, and products specifically designed for therapeutic use). This specification is not intended to apply to equipment to be used in places of public assembly such as schools, nurseries, day-care centers, and parks. Equipment intended to be in child-care centers in private homes is not exempt from the requirements of this specification. Such centers are defined as situations in which the child-care provider does not care for more than six children under the age of ten that are not residing in the household of the caregiver, and the total number of children under the age of ten does not exceed ten, including the caregiver's own children. Electrically operated constant air inflatable devices are exempted from the requirements of this specification.

Playground Surfaces

ASTM F2075-15 Standard Specification for Engineered Wood Fiber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface  Under and Around Playground Equipment

Engineered Wood Fiber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface

This specification establishes minimum characteristics for those factors that determine particle size, consistency, purity, and ability to drain.

Engineered wood fiber that meets the requirements of this specification must comply with Specification F1292, if the surface is in the use zone as defined in Specification F1487.

A sample of wood fiber that meets the requirements of this specification may be designated engineered wood fiber and be suitable for playground safety surfacing.

This specification does not imply that an injury cannot be incurred if the engineered wood fiber complies with this specification.

ASTM F2479-12 Standard Guide for Specification, Purchase, Installation and Maintenance of Poured-In-Place Playground Surfacing

Poured-In-Place Playground Surfacing

This guide covers information with regard to the design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of poured-in-place playground surfaces.

Note 1—This document is a guide and not intended to be used as a specification; it should be used for educational purposes.

This guide outlines the issues of compliance with existing standards, durability, and functional longevity.

This guide reviews issues such as edge treatment, abutting surfaces, and combinations with other surfaces designed for circulation or protective surfaces.

This guide presents maintenance considerations and general procedures that should be followed by the owner/operator.

This guide outlines aging considerations such as loss of impact absorption, cracking, shrinkage, heaving, and how to prevent, accommodate, or rectify those issues.

This guide presents warranty considerations.

ASTM F3012-14 Standard Specification for Loose-Fill Rubber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface under and around Playground Equipment

Loose-Fill Rubber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface

This specification establishes test methods and performance requirements for particle size distribution, extractable hazardous metal content, total lead content, tramp metal content, and sharp tramp metal content for loose-fill rubber that is intended to be used as a playground surface.

This specification does not contain test methods or performance requirements for the accessibility of loose-fill rubber playground surfacing. The specification also does not establish test methods or performance requirements to characterize the release of organic chemicals from loose-fill rubber intended to be used as a playground surface. Appendix X1 and Appendix X2 contain additional information on these topics.

If loose-fill rubber which meets the requirements of this standard is to be installed in the use zone of playground equipment, it must also comply with Specification F1292.

ASTM F2223-15 Standard Guide for ASTM Standards on Playground Surfacing

Guide for Selecting Surfacing Systems

This guide covers standards for selecting and specifying surface systems under and around playground equipment.

This guide describes how to apply existing ASTM standards to evaluate the impact attenuation, accessibility characteristics and product characteristics when selecting surfacing systems for use under and around playground equipment.

ASTM F1292-13 Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surfacing Materials Within the Use Zone of Playground Equipment

Specification for Impact Attenuation of Playground Surfacing Materials

This specification establishes minimum performance requirements for the impact attenuation of playground surfacing materials installed within the use zone of playground equipment.

This specification is specific to surfacing used in conjunction with playground equipment, such as that described in Specifications F1148, F1487, F1918, F1951, and F2075.

This specification establishes an impact attenuation performance criterion for playground surfacing materials; expressed as a critical fall height.

This specification establishes procedures for determining the critical fall height of playground surfacing materials under laboratory conditions. The laboratory test is mandatory for surfaces to conform to the requirements of this specification.

The laboratory test required by this specification addresses the performance of dry surfacing materials.

The critical fall height of a playground surfacing material determined under laboratory conditions does not account for important factors that have the potential to influence the actual performance of installed surfacing materials. Factors that are known to affect surfacing material performance include but are not limited to aging, moisture, maintenance, exposure to temperature extremes (for example, freezing), exposure to ultraviolet light, contamination with other materials, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, submersion in water, and so forth.

This specification also establishes a procedure for testing installed playground surfaces in order to determine whether an installed playground surface meets the specified performance criterion.

The results of a field test determine conformance of installed playground surfacing materials with the criterion of this specification and are specific to the ambient conditions under which the test was performed.

The impact attenuation specification and test methods established in this specification are specific to the risk of head injury. There is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of this specification reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury (for example, long bone fractures).

Note 1—The relative risk of fatality and of different degrees of head injury may be estimated using the information in Appendix X1, which shows the relationships between the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) scores of an impact and the probability of head injury.

Playground Accessibility

ASTM F1951-14 Standard Specification for Determination of Accessibility of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment

Determination of Accessibility of Playground Surface Systems

This specification establishes minimum characteristics for those factors that determine accessibility. This specification applies to all types of materials that can be used under and around playground equipment.

The material under and around playground equipment that meets this specification must also comply with Specification F1292 if the surface is within the fall zone.

Playground Fences

ASTM F2049-11 Standard Safety Performance Specification for Fences/Barriers for Public, Commercial, and Multi-Family Residential Use Outdoor Play Areas

Safety Performance Specification for Fences Barriers for Play Areas

This specification provides the recommended minimum requirements for denoting various types of fences/barriers for the protection of children's outdoor play spaces in public, commercial, and multi-family residential use locations. This specification excludes individual single family residential use play equipment locations. Interior fences located in a play area that has a perimeter fence established shall only have to comply with the latch height requirement indicated in 7.6.2.

This specification provides for the safety of occupants in play areas or zones as it pertains to vehicular intrusion as well as other participant intrusion, and for children containment or entry/exit. This specification has the intent to also keep children inside a predetermined area in an effort to enhance supervision; to keep children from running out of the area into water and other hazards; to minimize the likelihood of facial lacerations on low gate and fence hardware; to minimize the likelihood of abduction; and to restrict access to railroads, highways, roads, and other such hazards.

This specification does not choose the product components for the fence system, the choice of which should be made by the operators of the play space and their specification writers or drafters based upon their determination of the merits of the products that could be used.

Soft Contained Play Equipment

ASTM F1918-12 Standard Safety Performance Specification for Soft Contained Play Equipment

Safety Performance Specification for Soft Contained Play Equipment

This safety performance specification provides safety and performance standards for soft contained play equipment. Its purpose is to reduce the potential for life-threatening and debilitating injuries.

The range of users encompassed by this safety performance specification is the 5th percentile 2 year old to the 95th percentile 12 year old.

Public playground equipment, home playground equipment, sports equipment, amusement rides, fitness equipment not part of the play system, water-related attractions and devices, and toys and juvenile products are not included in this specification.

This specification does not address accessibility, except as it pertains to safety issues not covered in The Americans With Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG).

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Blood Collection Standard Practice

Blood Collection Standard Practice

Blood collection standard practices can guarantee efficiency and ensure the safety of all people involved with the drawing and testing of blood. Our blood is our life force, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the interconnected parts of our body. Because of its significance in not only the circulatory system but also additional processes in the human body, through blood, doctors can detect a lot about a patient’s health.

Standards for blood collection and laboratory testing are addressed in several standards written and published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), an ANSI-accredited standards developing organization.

Phlebotomy, the practice of drawing blood for testing, should not be confused with historic phlebotomy, or bloodletting. Blood has long been mishandled, since for the majority of human history, physicians, or other doctors of the time, practiced bloodletting without adequate safeguards. Modern practices maintain the wellbeing of the patients during blood collection, and standards address a variety of instances in which something can go wrong.

From the high potential for hazard, it is necessary that all blood be treated as if it is infectious. Blood, like all other patient and laboratory specimens, must be handled according to “standard precautions”. Guidelines for standard precautions are available through the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CLSI Venipuncture Standard

One of the most routinely performed invasive medical procedures in general, let alone for collecting blood, is venipuncture, or the collection of blood from a vein via a hypodermic needle. CLSI GP41-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture; Approved Standard - Sixth Edition is the standard practice for safe and efficient collection of a patient’s blood through venipuncture.

CLSI GP41-A6 not only covers the specific procedure for collecting a patient’s blood step-by-step, but also the facilities, materials, and even unique considerations that could alter the steps of the process. Examples of these considerations include patients who are unconscious, too young, or do not speak the language of the phlebotomist.

While venous blood is generally the specimen chosen for blood testing, blood can also be drawn from arteries or capillaries. Arterial blood has uses in detecting gas levels in the patient’s blood, while capillary blood is useful for collections on young children and the elderly. CLSI GP39-A6 - Tubes and Additives for Venous and Capillary Blood Specimen Collection; Approved Standard-Sixth Edition covers guidelines for the materials, manufacturing, and labeling of venous and capillary blood collection devices, and CLSI GP34-A - Validation and Verification of Tubes for Venous and Capillary Blood Specimen Collection; Approved Guideline gives guidance on validation and verification testing for those devices.

Blood Collection Standard CLSI

Of course, the efforts made in collecting blood mean nothing if the sample is improperly handled during laboratory testing. Some specific concerns relating to the handling and processing of blood samples include measurand concentration changes due to evaporation, incorrect storage temperature, the use of anticoagulants and serum/plasma separator devices, incorrect transport, and turnaround time for patient results.

CLSI GP44-A4 - Procedures for the Handling and Processing of Blood Specimens for Common Laboratory Tests; Approved Guideline - Fourth Edition seeks to control these different variables, providing a standard procedure for processing blood samples in laboratory tests that limits inaccuracies.

Blood collection and other Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards are available on the ANSI Webstore.

ISO 50001 Helps Organizations

npower, a UK-based gas and electricity provider, was able to reduce its carbon intensity by 56 percent between 2008 and 2015 by using ISO 50001, according to an article by This beat out their reduction goal of 50 percent, and was possible when adherence to the standard was combined with an enhanced data management system.

ISO 50001:2011 - Energy management systems - Requirements with guidance for use gives guidelines needed for a sound energy management system (EnMS). In the same vein as ISO 9001, the requirements given for this management focus on a specific idea (energy) and let an organization lay out a clear plan to achieve preset goals that let an idea trickle from the management to all personnel.

By its nature, ISO 50001 is not prescriptive, and its specific use depends on the organization itself. In general, it allows an organization to address all variables affecting energy performance that can be monitored. According to Jonathan Hulbert, npower’s sustainability manager, he likes ISO 50001 because “it is a ‘what’ rather than a ‘how’”, and gives you the framework to not only meet but also exceed the targets set in the standard. This is accomplished through clear designation of goals and responsibility, along with efforts to review and address any nonconformities to the set plan.

ISO 50001 Helps Organizations

By communicating the energy data and the goals set through ISO 50001, npower was able to strengthen its energy management system and change the general mindset of its employees. However, as stated in the standard, top management shall review the organization's EnMS to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness.” To continue its success, npower hopes to reduce its carbon intensity by an additional 25 percent between 2015 and 2020.

The story at npower is a great example of how international management guidelines can be shaped for an organization to let it achieve success. The efforts made by this company, with assistance from ISO 50001, have helped it save money and reduce its ecological footprint.

Internet of Things in Agriculture

Internet of Things Agriculture IoT

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the collective, cloud-based storage of data coming from sensors (things) in a variety of sources that responds in real-time to enhance overall performance. The IoT is already present in a variety of factories and even our personal devices. However, it is important to remember that the IoT incorporates much more than this, even improving the processes of industries that you wouldn’t normally expect to be involved with such advanced technology. One of these is agriculture, which can greatly benefit from the IoT.

Agriculture is actually one of the best industries for the Internet of Things, and as startup companies invest millions in smart farming technology, many of them see significant results. To meet the needs of possible global food shortages from a growing population, this technology is devoted to mainly to increasing productivity, efficiently eliminating pests, and minimizing waste.

Precision Agriculture

The IoT is in the process of greatly advancing the modern farming technique known as Precision Agriculture, or the use of collective data, including predictive weather analytics, to procure a greater harvest. The company Wilbur Ellis is pioneering the Precision Agriculture movement by heavily implementing the IoT into its data collection focusing on crop protection, nutrition, and seed technology. Prior to the use of advanced sensors, the company struggled with data capturing software that was mainly used on laptops, so field specialists needed to rely on clipboards and pencils as they went out into the field to collect data that would later be analyzed.

Precision Agriculture

However, with the implementation of the IoT, Wilbur Ellis and smaller farming operations are able to make use of data in real-time to enhance their business. By pairing the IoT with precision agriculture, control centers collect and process accurate and continuous data to help farmers make the best decisions with regard to planting, fertilizing and harvesting crops

What the Internet of Things Does for Agriculture

The sensors used in agricultural processes are placed throughout the fields to measure the temperature and humidity of the soil and the surrounding air. This gives instantaneous data on the local weather conditions that are affecting the seeds and plants. Precision agriculture pairs this sensor-based data with images of the cropfields that are taken using satellite imagery and robotic drones. Since these images are collected over time, they show crop maturity, and the two processes together give companies like IBM the ability to make predictive weather models.

Predictive weather models are incredibly important to manage the growth of crops simply because a harvest is largely dependent on the weather conditions, whether it be from photosynthesis to grow, or a rainstorm that could wash them away.

IoT Animals

However, there are also sensors that analyze almost all other farming processes. Farming equipment, like many other pieces of modern technology, are hooked up to the IoT. So is much of the livestock. With embedded Internet sensors that do not cause the animals discomfort, farmers can monitor what has been called the Internet of Animal Health Things (IoAHT).

Using the IoAHT allows professionals to strive towards two main objectives: humane treatment of animals and reduced labor and capital inputs. Sensors embedded in farm animals closely monitor their health, and any variations, as with changes in other sensors, are detected in real time. This grants a major increase in productivity while ensuring proper treatment and traceability of animals.

Something else noteworthy about the IoAHT is that there is little about it that limits it to agriculture, and has potential to help improve health treatment of pets.

Second Green Revolution

The human population is drastically higher than ever before, and it only continues to grow. By the year 2050, the Earth’s population is projected to grow to 9.7 billion, an amount dangerously close to our carrying capacity, or population that our planet’s resources can sustain, of 10 billion.

As we discussed in our post on ANSI GELPP 001-2002: Livestock Operations Conditions, in the mid-Twentieth Century, there was a “Green Revolution” that made use of advanced technology that to allow farmers to increase crop yield while decreasing total space needed for farmland. With the potential for increased yield through the IoT, we might be in the beginnings of a needed Second Green Revolution to feed the skyrocketing human population.

Scuba Rice

The Second Green Revolution is not only focused on the IoT, however. Other modern innovations are helping to secure food for the future, such as the newly cultivated “scuba rice”, which can survive two weeks underwater.

INCITS/IoT10, a subcommittee of ISO/IEC JTC 1, focuses on standardization of the Internet of Things. The U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) Administrator of ISO/IEC JTC 1 is the International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS), an ANSI-accredited standards developing organization.